Both basic and advanced merging operations.
git merge [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit] [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]] [--[no-]allow-unrelated-histories] [--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [-F <file>] [<commit>...] git merge --abort git merge --continue
If you have this situation:
A---B---C topic / D---E---F---G master
$ git checkout master $ git merge topic
the end result is a new merge commit H:
A---B---C topic / \ D---E---F---G---H master
If you have this:
A---B---C topic / D---E master
$ git checkout master $ git merge topic
the default fast-forward merge will produce:
A---B---C topic / master D---E
or, depicted another way:
D---E---A---B---C master topic
With --contains, shows only the branches that contain the named commit (in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the named commit), --no-contains inverts it. With --merged, only branches merged into the named commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are reachable from the named commit) will be listed. With --no-merged only branches not merged into the named commit will be listed. If the <commit> argument is missing it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the tip of the current branch).
$ git branch --merged master $ git branch --no-merged $ git branch --contains v4.19 $ git branch --no-contains v4.19
Imagine this change on the
$ git show master commit 4a93eab592cf790838314b3799eb7a4faa213538 (HEAD -> master) Author: Robert P. J. Day <email@example.com> Date: Fri Mar 1 08:17:50 2019 -0500 Change to third edition diff --git a/README.asc b/README.asc index fa40bad..9fefbd5 100644 --- a/README.asc +++ b/README.asc @@ -1,4 +1,4 @@ -= Pro Git, Second Edition += Pro Git, Third Edition Welcome to the second edition of the Pro Git book. $
And imagine this clearly-conflicting change on the branch
$ git show 4th commit 9e679bc1c27d5d708d571ea1b47564f3a99df944 (4th) Author: Robert P. J. Day <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Fri Mar 1 08:19:35 2019 -0500 Fourth edition diff --git a/README.asc b/README.asc index fa40bad..1f0879f 100644 --- a/README.asc +++ b/README.asc @@ -1,4 +1,4 @@ -= Pro Git, Second Edition += Pro Git, Fourth Edition Welcome to the second edition of the Pro Git book. $
Trying to merge will generate a merge conflict:
$ git checkout master $ git merge 4th Auto-merging README.asc CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in README.asc Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result. $
git status will tell you that you have a merge conflict;
$ git status ... snip ... You have unmerged paths. (fix conflicts and run "git commit") (use "git merge --abort" to abort the merge) Unmerged paths: (use "git add <file>..." to mark resolution) both modified: README.asc no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
The merge conflict is identified in the
$ less README.asc <<<<<<< HEAD = Pro Git, Third Edition ======= = Pro Git, Fourth Edition >>>>>>> 4th Welcome to the second edition of the Pro Git book. ... etc etc ...
So edit the file and resolve the conflict any way you want, such as:
$ less README.asc = Pro Git, Fifth Edition ... snip ...
Stage the resolved file:
$ git add README.asc
You can tell the conflicts are now resolved:
$ git status On branch master All conflicts fixed but you are still merging. (use "git commit" to conclude merge) Changes to be committed: modified: README.asc $
$ git commit -m "Bumped merge up to fifth edition"
The final version of
= Pro Git, Fifth Edition Welcome to the second edition of the Pro Git book. ... etc ...
Recall a fast-forward merge:
A---B---C topic / master D---E
You may or may not want that:
--ff When the merge resolves as a fast-forward, only update the branch pointer, without creating a merge commit. This is the default behavior. --no-ff Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a fast-forward. This is the default behaviour when merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag that is not stored in its natural place in refs/tags/ hierarchy. --ff-only Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the current HEAD is already up to date or the merge can be resolved as a fast-forward.
--commit, --no-commit Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to override --no-commit. With --no-commit perform the merge but pretend the merge failed and do not autocommit, to give the user a chance to inspect and further tweak the merge result before committing.
--edit, -e, --no-edit Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to further edit the auto-generated merge message, so that the user can explain and justify the merge. The --no-edit option can be used to accept the auto-generated message (this is generally discouraged). The --edit (or -e) option is still useful if you are giving a draft message with the -m option from the command line and want to edit it in the editor.
--squash, --no-squash Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge happened (except for the merge information), but do not actually make a commit, move the HEAD, or record $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD (to cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit). This allows you to create a single commit on top of the current branch whose effect is the same as merging another branch (or more in case of an octopus). With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to override --squash.
$ git checkout master $ git merge --squash <branch with many commits> $ git commit
man git-config, you can set (either locally or globally) per-branch merge options:
branch.<name>.mergeOptions Sets default options for merging into branch <name>. The syntax and supported options are the same as those of git- merge(1), but option values containing whitespace characters are currently not supported.
For example, if you wanted to prevent any fast-forward merges to any
master branch across all of your repositories, you could:
$ git config --global branch.master.mergeOptions "--no-ff"
For merging, there is at least one repo-wide merge option you can set (see
merge.ff By default, Git does not create an extra merge commit when merging a commit that is a descendant of the current commit. Instead, the tip of the current branch is fast-forwarded. When set to false, this variable tells Git to create an extra merge commit in such a case (equivalent to giving the --no-ff option from the command line). When set to only, only such fast-forward merges are allowed (equivalent to giving the --ff-only option from the command line).
So for widespread fast-forward merge configuration:
$ git config --global merge.ff "true"
This setting is superseded by any per-branch fast-forward merge setting.
Technically record a merge while totally ignoring its content – for record-keeping.
$ git checkout master $ git merge --strategy=ours <obsolete branch>
How to make
master look exactly like
$ git checkout topic $ git merge -s ours master $ git checkout master $ git merge --ff-only topic
To do this for an arbitrary commit, create a temporary branch:
$ git checkout -b tempbranch <commit ID> $ git merge -s ours master $ git checkout master $ git merge --ff-only tempbranch