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git_commit [2018/06/17 11:06]
rpjday [Template]
git_commit [2019/02/28 12:34]
rpjday [git diff --cached --stat]
Line 1: Line 1:
 ===== Overview ===== ===== Overview =====
  
-Miscellaneous notes on ''​git commit''​.+Miscellaneous notes on ''​git commit''​, using the Linux kernel source as an example.
  
-===== Template ​=====+===== SYNOPSIS ​=====
  
 <​code>​ <​code>​
-git config ​--global ​commit.template ~/.gitmessage.txt+git commit [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<​mode>​] [--amend] 
 +           ​[--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>] 
 +           [-F <​file>​ | -m <​msg>​] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty] 
 +           ​[--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<​author>​] 
 +           ​[--date=<​date>​] [--cleanup=<​mode>​] [--[no-]status] 
 +           [-i | -o] [-S[<​keyid>​]] [--] [<​file>​...]
 </​code>​ </​code>​
 +===== Examining what is about to be committed =====
  
-Example ​''​~/​.gitmessage.txt'':​+==== git status ==== 
 + 
 +See which files are staged for committing:​ 
 + 
 +<​code>​ 
 +$ git status 
 +On branch master 
 +Your branch is up to date with '​origin/​master'​. 
 + 
 +Changes to be committed:​ 
 +  (use "git reset HEAD <​file>​..."​ to unstage) 
 + 
 + modified: ​  ​MAINTAINERS 
 + modified: ​  ​README 
 + 
 +Changes not staged for commit: 
 +  (use "git add <​file>​..."​ to update what will be committed) 
 +  (use "git checkout -- <​file>​..."​ to discard changes in working directory) 
 + 
 + modified: ​  ​Makefile 
 +
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +==== git diff --cached ==== 
 + 
 +To see the entire difference about to be committed:​ 
 + 
 +<​code>​ 
 +$ git diff --cached ​                           [or --staged] 
 +diff --git a/​MAINTAINERS b/​MAINTAINERS 
 +index 41ce5f4ad838..202d67e2facb 100644 
 +--- a/​MAINTAINERS 
 ++++ b/​MAINTAINERS 
 +@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@ 
 +
 ++New stuff in MAINTAINERS 
 +  
 +        List of maintainers and how to submit kernel changes 
 +  
 +diff --git a/README b/README 
 +index 669ac7c32292..3db2a5b35089 100644 
 +--- a/README 
 ++++ b/README 
 +@@ -1,3 +1,5 @@ 
 ++New stuff in README 
 +
 + Linux kernel 
 + ​============ 
 +  
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +==== git diff --cached --stat ==== 
 + 
 +For a histogram-style summary, add ''​%%--%%stat'':​ 
 + 
 +<​code>​ 
 +$ git diff --cached --stat 
 + ​MAINTAINERS | 2 +- 
 + ​README ​     | 2 ++ 
 + 2 files changed, 3 insertions(+),​ 1 deletion(-) 
 +
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +===== Popular commit options ===== 
 + 
 +==== "​-m"​ ==== 
 + 
 +<​code>​ 
 +-m <​msg>,​ --message=<​msg>​ 
 +    Use the given <msg> as the commit message. If multiple -m 
 +    options are given, their values are concatenated as 
 +    separate paragraphs. 
 + 
 +    The -m option is mutually exclusive with -c, -C, and -F. 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +==== "​-a"​ ==== 
 + 
 +<​code>​ 
 +-a, --all 
 +    Tell the command to automatically stage files that have 
 +    been modified and deleted, but new files you have not told 
 +    Git about are not affected. 
 +</​code>​ 
 +===== Defining a commit template ===== 
 + 
 +You can define a more informative commit //​template//​ message, say in a personal ​''​~/​.gitmessage.txt'' ​file:
  
 <​code>​ <​code>​
Line 18: Line 110:
  
 [Ticket: X] [Ticket: X]
 +</​code>​
 +
 +and have it used in one of two ways when committing.
 +
 +First, manually at the command line:
 +
 +<​code>​
 +-t <​file>,​ --template=<​file>​
 +    When editing the commit message, start the editor with the
 +    contents in the given file. The commit.template
 +    configuration variable is often used to give this option
 +    implicitly to the command. This mechanism can be used by
 +    projects that want to guide participants with some hints on
 +    what to write in the message in what order. If the user
 +    exits the editor without editing the message, the commit is
 +    aborted. This has no effect when a message is given by
 +    other means, e.g. with the -m or -F options.
 +</​code>​
 +
 +As a second option, set it once as a configuration setting:
 +
 +<​code>​
 +$ git config --global commit.template ~/​.gitmessage.txt
 </​code>​ </​code>​
git_commit.txt · Last modified: 2019/02/28 12:36 by rpjday